Shipbuilding industry is a high-risk occupation after mining and construction, because the working environment cluttered, long construction period, types, process, process complex, with more homework, job mobility, so there are many dangerous and harmful factors of shipbuilding process, frequent incidents, and the fire risk of widespread and serious the consequences are particularly outstanding. Therefore, it is very important to prevent and control the danger of fire in the process of ship building.
1. The main operation process and the type of operation of the ship
Operation process of ship construction includes material processing, Li, Li, group group total group, erection, commissioning, carrying, trials and outfitting, painting (Figure). The work types are grinding, welding, assembly, lifting, vehicle transportation, paint and so on. There is a great danger in every work link, which will lead to the attack.
Two, type of fire (blasting)
In the shipbuilding process, multi touch welding, cutting, painting and other types of work and with limited space work throughout the existence of the objective elements of fire and explosion caused a simple incident, coupled with people's unsafe behavior and the handling of faults, attack at any time may become a fire explosion incidents.
(1) common types of fire
1. gas fire: this kind of fire is mainly acetylene, natural gas and other combustible gas leak attack, encountered fire source burning attack.
2. oil fire: this kind of fire is mainly diesel oil, fuel oil, paint, thinners and other oil burning fire, encounter attack.
3. flammable solid fire: this kind of fire is mainly combustible, such as furniture, combustible packing, heat insulation material and so on. It meets the incineration of the fire source.
4. electric fire: this kind of fire is mainly the bad contact of electrical line and the incineration of bad insulation of electrical equipment.
5. electrostatic fire: this kind of fire is mainly the incineration (or blasting) of the combustible gas and combustible steam caused by the electrostatic discharge.
(two) type of blasting
1. explosion of combustible gas and air
This kind of blasting is mainly the mixture of acetylene, natural gas and other combustible gases, the concentration reaches the limit range of blasting and meets the explosion of fire source.
The explosion of 2. flammable liquid vaporized by the mixture of steam and air
This kind of blasting is a flammable liquid, such as paint, thinners and other gas evaporation and air mixture, the concentration reached within the limits of the blasting, blasting fire attack encountered.
Three, case of fire (blasting) incident
(a) in April 18, 2003, about 10:15 in the morning, two XX shipyard fitter in a 1700 TEU Container Ship Cabin mainland shaft tail, open channel is fixed on the earth's axis, because sparks caused by oil bildge fire disaster, killing two oil chemical asphyxia death.
Cause analysis: bilge oil sewage and other combustible materials is the main reason, and the assembly had not transacted for approval formalities illegal flare is a direct cause of the trouble, the other, before welding to make the corresponding protective measures ineffective, the important reason is the formation of this incident.
(two) XX shipyard in May 19th 06 forepeak in painting, because were interspersed with fire operations, Mars splash into the painting area at the moment, the cabin of combustible gas has reached the limit of blasting, blasting at the onset of trouble. Three people died on the spot, and two were suffocated.
Analysis of the reasons: 1. in the range of the fore hatch operation area, the painting operation is carried out with the open fire operation (interspersed). It is the direct cause of the blasting. 2. the concentration of combustible gas has reached the limit of blasting during the coating operation, and the main cause of the incident is the occurrence of fire attack and blasting.
Four. Characteristics of ship fire (blasting) incident
(1) characteristics of engine room fire: fast extension, easy to extend to contiguous cabin, easy attack blasting, large smoke and low visibility.
(two) cargo fire characteristics: cabin fire smoldering, unknown; rapid heating, flammable and explosive substances, extremely simple burning caused by blasting.
(three) the characteristics of the oil tank fire: incineration, blasting, or spilling and spilling, which can make the flame rugged and rapid and rapid.
(four) the fire characteristics of the ship building: the fire extends upward, it is difficult to find the source of the gang, and direct the cabin.
(five) cabin fire burning characteristics: strong, rapid expansion, fireworks fires, personnel evacuation difficulty.
Five. Cause of the fire hazard
(1) the knowledge of fire prevention in enterprises is not strong. The ship construction enterprise is often heavy operation, light handling, heavy benefit, light safety, production managers are particularly outstanding. The staff arrangement and the technology of safety education and training in a mere formality, leading to the field workers without strict fire safety training, the ship building process, fire hazard and hazard preparedness, blasting points do not understand; in the safety production investment is less, the safety production condition is poor, inadequate equipment and fire fighting equipment safety management; standards, emergency plan implementation, performance is not in place, the fire operation can not be carried out.
(two) the employees' safety awareness was indifferent. The ship construction occupation staff mainly by migrant workers, mostly from rural areas, appropriate cultural quality is relatively thin, and high mobility, on the occupation characteristics do not quite understand, and never go out to work, in the absence of system security, through the process of training, many workers have not been admitted in the special position of the qualification certificate. Next, dare to risk their job, no security guard consciousness did not exist in the project operation, the phenomenon of mess, not according to the rules to perform,